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The causes of the Civil War were complex, and have been controversial since the war began. The issue has been further convoluted by historical revisionism, which has attempted to minimize the role of certain causes for various reasons, in particular the role of slavery. Slavery had been the source of increasing political unrest, and the issue had often been masked by proxies such as tariffs, states' rights, nationalism, and regionalism. Historian Shelby Foote notes that few southerners saw themselves as fighting to preserve slavery. To most northerners, in contrast, the war was fought to preserve the union, not to abolish slavery. The causes, therefore, extend further than the reasons that motivated people to take a side. When Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, many in the north were incensed over the implication that they were fighting and dying for the cause of the abolitionists, who constituted a relatively small group. The ultimate causes extend further than the conscience motives among people at the time, though historians believe that slavery was the main political issue.



Learning Center Videos:



Civil War Research 35 minutes Watch Video
Civil War Research: Learning about Your Union Veteran Ancestor 51 minutes Watch Video

Identifying Civil War Ancestors in Your Family Tree

9 minutes Watch Video
Civil War Military Records 35 minutes Watch Video




Confederate Cemeteries at Chattanooga, TN

Confederate Cemeteries at Chattanooga, TN - Names of Buried Soldiers

Confederate Circle Heroes - Names of soldiers buried in Evergreen Cemetery at Murphreesboro, TN

National Park Service - Civil War Cemeteries

Pickens County Cemetery GPS Mapping Project

Pickens County GenWeb Tombstone Project

The Genealogy Register Cemetery

Veterans Administration - National Cemeteries

Veterans Administration Headstones and Markers

Veterans Administration - Nationwide Gravesite Locator



Message & Query Boards: Query Boards:


- Civil War

- Civil War Southern Unionist Message Boards:


- Civil War

- Civil War Graves

- Civil War letters

- Rebs-n-Yanks

- Women in the War



Miscellaneous References - Abbeville County:




Miscellaneous References - Anderson County:


Anderson County SC Confederate Pensioners in 1901, MJR001-A, by Brent H. Holcomb

Palmetto Riflemen & New York Zouaves

Sons of Confederate Veterans - A Heritage of Honor:



Miscellaneous References - Greenville County:




Miscellaneous References - Oconee County:


Oconee County Confederate Pensioners in 1901, MJR002-O, by Brent H. Holcomb

Palmetto Riflemen & New York Zouaves



Miscellaneous References - Pickens County:


Confederate Soldier Pension Applications 1888-1960: 


Both the Federal government and Southern state governments continued to provide pensions for Civil War veterans and their widows well into the middle of the twentieth century. In all, billions of dollars were expended by both sides in an effort to "reward" the survivors of America's costliest war. Because of the high rates of expansion in both the Federal and Confederate systems, critics frequently accused pensioners and officials alike of corruption and fraud. Those pensioners most often labeled as frauds were widows, especially young women who had married veterans much older than themselves, supposed "cowards," and, in the Federal system, black veterans. By the mid-twentieth century, both systems were generally considered devoid of original integrity.


Includes: Confederate Pension Application Details, Courthouse Records, Oath-of-Allegiance, United Daughters of Confederacy 1920 Application Forms


Confederate Pension Applications 1902-1919, (Available at Easley Library, 864-850-7077,


Pickens County Confederate Pensioners in 1901, MJR003-P, by Brent H. Holcomb


Rebels in Grey, Soldiers from Pickens District 1861-1865, MJR005, edited by Louise Matheson Bell, published by The Grey's of Oconee of Chapter # 1783, United


Southern Cross of Honor Applications:  ( Set Your Adobe Reader Program to "100% Viewing" when looking at these documents. )


The Southern Cross of Honor is also used as a symbol on the graves of Confederate Veterans who served honorably. It can take two different forms which can sometimes both be seen on the same soldier's grave.


One form is an outline of the Southern Cross engraved on the actual gravestone of the veteran. This symbol is still available to be placed as an optional symbol of belief on a U.S. Veterans Administration issued gravestone. This symbol will only be issued by the V.A. to be placed on the grave of a Confederate Veteran. The symbol is also available to be placed on existing gravestones by some private monument companies and stone carvers.


The second form of the Southern Cross of Honor seen on Confederate graves is a two-sided, cast iron replica of the medal. This cross stands atop a metal rod placed into the ground at the veteran's grave. It is sometimes referred to as the "Iron Cross of Honor" or "SCV Iron Cross." The cross is typically placed on Confederate graves by local chapters of the Sons of Confederate Veterans or by family members or interested parties related to the Confederate Veteran. The iron cross version of the SCH is available for purchase through several SCV chapters as well as several private foundries throughout the United States. The grave of any Confederate Veteran who served honorably is eligible for placement of this symbol.



Miscellaneous References - Publications:


Battles of the Civil War, by - Oxmoor 1976 (Available at Easley Library, 864-850-7077,

Daughters of the Confederacy (Available at Easley Library, 864-850-7077,

Palmetto Riflemen & New York Zouaves

Roll of the Dead - SC Confederate Soldiers, by SC Department of Archives, vol. 1-2 (Available at Easley Library, 864-850-7077,

Roster of Confederate Soldiers, edited by Janet B. Hewett, vol. 1-16 (Available at Easley Library, 864-850-7077,

Sons of Confederate Veterans - A Heritage of Honor:



Miscellaneous References:


15 Steps In Military Research - My Journey Back To 1725, Samples of information contained in Confederate, Union and Revolutionary documents provided by State Archives and National Archives & Records Administration.


Confederate Muster Roll and Widow Register

Union Pay Roll Card Numbers

Union Description Book

Union Pension Letters

Memorandum from POW Records


American Civil War Home Page

Civil War in Richmond

Civil War Soldier Interviews, H-41, by The Daily Anderson Intelligencer

Confederate Museum - Greenville, SC

Confederate Museum - Charleston, SC

Confederate Museum - Columbia, SC

Confederate Regimental Histories
Cyndi's List - Military

Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War 1861-65

Furman University's 19th Century Documents
Last Battle of the Civil War, H-40, by The Daily Anderson Intelligencer / W.P. Price

Library of Congress - Selected Civil War Photographs

Museum of the Confederacy

National Archives of the United States - Civil War Records, General Reference Branch (NNRG-P), National Archives & Records, Administration, 7th & Pennsylvania Avenue, NW , Washington, D. C. 20408

National Park Service - SC Battle Summaries

National Park Service Battlefields

National Park Service Civil War Soldiers and Sailors

S.C. Department of Archives & History, 8301 Parklane Road, Columbia, SC 29223 , (803) 896-6100, Fax: 896-6198, Staff Directory

     - Summary Guide to Records of the Confederate States of America 

S.C. Confederate Units
S.C. Historical Society

SC Military Records

S.C. Regiments at National Park Service

Smithsonian Institution

Sons of Confederate Veterans - South Carolina Division
–  Gen. Richard Heron Anderson # 47 - Beaufort
Brigadier General Barnard E. Bee Camp # 1575 - Aiken
Pvt. John S Bird - Palmetto Guard # 38 - North Charleston
Gen. Ellison Capers Camp # 1212 - Moncks Corner
Jefferson Davis Regiment Camp # 7 - Easley
15th Regiment SC Volunteers Camp # 51 - Lexington
Cpt. Moses T Fowler Camp # 1721 - Fountain Inn
Lt. Gen. Wade Hampton Camp # 273 - Columbia
Cpt. Andrew T Harllee Camp # 2010 - Dillon
H.L. Hunley Camp # 143 - Summerville
Litchfield Camp # 132 - Conway
Moultrie Camp # 27 - Mount Pleasant
Olde Abbeville Camp # 39 - Greenwood
Palmetto Camp # 22 - Columbia
Pee Dee Rifles Camp # 1419 - Florence
Rivers Bridge Camp # 842 - Fairfax
Secession Camp # 4 - Charleston

Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War

U.S. Civil War Center

U.S. National Archives & Records Administration

United Daughters of the Confederacy

WBTS Rosters by state - Including Union





Greenville SC: Museum & Library of Confederate History

Hendersonville NC: Hendersonville County Heritage Museum

Toccoa GA: Currahee Military Museum



Photographs & Sketches:


Battles of the Civil War 1861-1865,  by Fairfax, 1979

Battles: Antietam, Atlanta, Bull Run, Champion Hill, Chancellorsville, Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Chickamauga, Cold Harbor, Corinth, Fort Donelson, Fort Fisher, Fort Pillow, Fort Sanders,  Fort Wagner, Franklin, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Kennesaw Mountain, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Monitor & Merrimack, Nashville, Olustee, Opequon, Pea Ridge, Petersburg, Resaca, Shiloh, Spotsylvania, Stones River,  Vicksburg, Wilderness, Williamsburg, Wilson's Creek

Bradys Civil War, by Webb Garrison, 2005 (Available at Powdersville Library, 864-295-1190,

Civil War Photos

Civil War Photos: Part 1, Part 2, ( UNFORTUNATELY, this website contains personal comments about the war, which are intelligent AND Ignorant... )

Library of Congress Photo Search Engine

Library of Congress Selected Photos

NARA Research Civil War Photos

Robert E. Lee, The Man and the Soldier, A Pictorial Biography by Philip Van Doren Stern (Available at Easley Library, 864-850-7077,

The Boys War, Confederate and Union Soldiers Talk about the Civil War,  by Jim Murphy, 1990 (Available at Powdersville Library, 864-295-1190,



Songs of the Confederacy:


All Quiet Along the Potomac Tonight

Stonewall Jackson's Way

When Johnny Comes Marching Home

Maryland, My Maryland

O' I'm a Good Old Rebel

The Bonnie Blue Flag

Music & Poetry of the War